Changing lifestyles and the impact on breast cancer
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. As a leading risk factor, according to exposure of women to oestrogen throughout life, early first menstruation and late menopause, a large number of menstrual cycles and the use of estrogen and oestro-progestons. It is known also that breastfeeding protects against the occurrence of breast cancer, while alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer. 2008 made the scientific research how lifestyles, and their possible changes affect the occurrence of breast cancer. Studied the impact of lifestyles such as physical activity, smoking, weight gain after diagnosis of disease and diet.
The research was conducted by searching published scientific papers, using the keywords ” breast neoplasm ” OR ” breast cancer ”, ” AND prognosis ” and Survival ” ” AND diet ” and life style ” ” and physical activity ” ” and smoking ” ” and Obesity ” ” AND phytoestrogenes ” ” and dietary fat ”. They use data from five research studies. The Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) study that included 2,321 survivors of early stage breast cancer. The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study, which was attended by 1,185 people affected by breast cancer. The Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival (SBSS), a study that included 2,236 Chinese women suffering from breast cancer. The Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHELEN), a study that included 3,088 women. The Women’s Intervention Nutrition (WINS), a study that included 2,437 patients with breast cancer at an early stage.
The final conclusion of the research is the recommendation of changing lifestyles as a great help in the prevention of breast cancer with standard medical treatments. Thus, the recommended physical activity, weight control, eating fruits and vegetables, reducing fat intake. Physical activity has proven to be a major protective factor in reducing mortality from breast cancer, especially in women who are at average walking 3-5 hours per week. Although the three studies that have studied show that smoking is not associated with the appearance of breast cancer or with a mortality rate of breast cancer, one study shows that mortality is higher in women who smoke, and the lowest in women who do not smoke. Body weight has a very negative effect with the appearance of cancer and mortality, and women who gathered overweight after diagnosis are more likely to return cancer and with them is greater mortality rate compared with women who have a lower body mass index (BMI). Phytoestrogens are plant estrogen-like compound in a mammal, and the consumption of food with soy associate with the occurrence of breast cancer, although Chinese study not associated soy with cancer. Consumption of fat also proved to be associated with the appearance of breast cancer before and after menopause.
[Kellen 2008] Kellen E, Vansant G, Christiaens MR, Neven P, Limbergen E. Lifestyle changes and breast cancer prognosis: a review. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Springer Verlag, 2008, 114 (1), pp.13-22. <10.1007/s10549-008-9990-8>. <hal-00478334>