The impact of changes in lifestyle and diet for long-term weight gain
Obesity has now become one of the biggest health problems. An increasing number of people suffer from overweight and obesity, which has resulted in the emergence of many chronic diseases, and even death. Although it is commonly thought that the fight against obesity is easy, most easily is to get more exercise and eat less, and that care should be taken in the ratio entered and burned calories, this is not always so. Kilograms are gradually accumulated over the years, and for many is difficult to find the real causes of weight gain. Research on obesity, usually carried out on obese people who in a short period of time, using specialized diet loss more weight, and therefore do not reveal the real causes of long-term weight gain. Also, most studies of obesity based on current living habits and lifestyle changes observed separately. Due to these facts on previous studies of obesity, a group of scientists conducted research on the relationship between several lifestyle changes to long-term weight gain of men and women. Lifestyle changes are observed separately and together. For the purpose of research used data from three different studies on obesity, “The Nurses ‘Health Study (NHS),” “The Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II)”, and ” The Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). ” NHS survey conducted in 1976, and it was attended by 121.701 women from 11 US states. An NHS II study conducted in 1989 which involved 116.686 women younger ages, from 14 US states. HPFS is a study from 1986, which involved 51,529 men from all over America. For the purposes of this study taking the detailed information on diet, physical activity and smoking habits for the first available year from each of the previous research. For research data were not used those participants who are at the beginning of each of the previous studies were already overweight, suffering from diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver and kidney disease, those with data on life habits did not exist, those with strange energy intake calories a day, less than 900 or more than 3500 kcal, those who did not have fully completed questionnaires on diet, women who are become pregnant during the study, and those older than 65 years. Thus, the total number of participants from previous studies, whose data is observed at the end was 50,422 women in the NHS, 47,898 from NHS II, and 22,557 men from HPFS.
The results showed that was more independent lifestyle changes associated with long-term weight gain, and there are changes in the consumption of certain foods and beverages, changes in alcohol consumption, changes in physical activity, changes in the amount of time spent watching TV, change in smoking. It was shown that the weight gain gradually, and the weight has accumulated over time, and even small changes in some weight may affect the subsequent appearance of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and metabolic disorders. So there is a great connection between the consumption of starches, refined grains and processed foods with changes in weight. Such foods are less filling, increases later signals of hunger and caloric intake, compared with food that is less processed, contains more fiber and is richer with healthy fats and proteins. Foods such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, yogurt and nuts, even when consumed in large quantities, has less impact on weight gain. Also fresh fruit juices have less impact on weight gain than sweetened drinks. Connection between alcohol consumption and weight gain is more complex and requires more research. Changes in physical activity, and the time spent watching TV, also demonstrate the effect weight gain. It turned out that the amount of sleep also effects on weight gain. Giving up smoking, short-term impact on the weight gain, but the long term is not conducive to the weight gain, but it turned out that people who quit smoking are less likely to develop diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, and smoking negatively affects the changes in fat distribution. Also, it was shown that a deviation from the usual daily intake of only 50-100 calories can affect on the long term weight gain.
[Mozaffarian 2011] Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long-Term Weight Gain in Women and Men. N Engl J Med 2011; 364:2392-2404June 23, 2011DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1014296