The impact of reducing the weight and changing lifestyles on vascular inflammatory markers
Everyone is a known fact how unhealthy obesity is, and what negative effects have on our health. Obesity is a chronic disease, and is one cause of a number of other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and heart disease, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, cancer and asthma. Obesity proven shortens life expectancy. Today it is considered that the occurrence of obesity has grown to epidemic. The main causes of obesity are our poor life style, especially insufficient physical activity and unhealthy diet. A huge effort is made that people change their lifestyles and habits, especially those related to diet and physical activity. Besides the big effort, fight against obesity are spending a lot of money, which begins very burdened healthcare systems.
It was made the health study, which aimed to find out how changes in lifestyle, by which reduce body weight, affecting on the markers of systemic vascular inflammation and insulin resistance. The study was carried out between 1999 and 2002 in Italy. The study included 120 obese women, divided into two groups. The women were aged 20-46 years. The first group was the intervention group, and the second was the control group. The intervention group received detailed instructions and tips to help with low-energy Mediterranean diet and increase physical activity to reduce body weight by at least 10%. The control group was given basic advice and tips on healthy eating and physical activity. During the first year intake in the intervention group was 1,300 calories a day, and in the second year of 1,500 calories a day.
Two years later it was found that women in the intervention group began to consume more foods rich in complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fats and fiber, and decreased intake of fatty acids, saturated fat, cholesterol and calories. After two years in both groups was observed decline in body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio WHR, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride.
They conclude that weight loss over a long period can be successful if you change your habits and styles, the approach should be multidisciplinary and must be maintained longer period. The initial enthusiasm and efforts to change lifestyle, are often vulnerable to external factors from the environment that affect weight gain. With the increase in physical activity and an easy, low-energy Mediterranean diet is possible weight loss over a longer period, and thus a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but lifestyle changes should be approached seriously and dedicated, over a long period.
[Esposito 2003] Esposito K, Pontillo A, Di Palo C, Giugliano G, Masella M, Marfella R, Giugliano D. Effect of Weight Loss and Lifestyle Changes on Vascular Inflammatory Markers in Obese Women. A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2003;289(14):1799-1804. doi:10.1001/jama.289.14.1799