Type of diet and weight gain in women
Obesity has become one of the biggest health problems in the United States. It is estimated that as many as two-thirds of adult Americans suffer from obesity. For the main cause of excessive weight gain is considered to be an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Although many scientific studies have been carried out in which food factors cause excessive weight gain, there is still little known about them. Mostly it’s because they are examined mainly by individual macronutrients such as fat, carbohydrates and proteins, and how they affect the reduced weight. That is why extensive research has been carried out, about how certain types of diet effect on the long-term increase in body weight.
The study involved 116,671 American women, aged 22-44. Women were observed in the period between 1991 and 1999. Food habits (diet type) and weight were established in 1991, 1995 and 1999. The effects of Western diet that are rich in red meat, processed meat products, processed cereals, potatoes, sweets, sweets, and a healthy diet that is rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish and poultry meat to weight changes are observed. Out of the initial number of observed women, those who did not complete the nutrition questionnaires, those who did not claim to have consumed more than 9 foods from the questionnaire those who had cardiovascular disease or diabetes before 1995, those who had cancer, those who did not provide data about their weight, those who did not include information about physical activity, and those who were pregnant during the observation were excluded. Thus, the total number of women observed at the end was 51,670.
Observed women completed questionnaires every four years, in the questionnaire were placed data on 133 types of food, which were asked to indicate how often they consumed and in what quantity. Foods from the questionnaire are later classified into 39 food groups. Also, they asked for information on the age, weight, smoking status, use of contraceptives, hormonal supplements after menopause, and pregnancy.
The results show that women who consume more Western nutrition are mostly younger, smoked, eat more fats and less carbohydrates, and eat foods with a higher glycemic index and fewer fibers. Fewer pounds during the observation purchase women who have increased a healthy diet, and more those who have reduced a healthy diet. It was found that the intake of unhealthy Western nutrition affects long-term weight gain. The results show that changes in diet, switching to a healthy diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans and salad dressings with oil and vinegar affects the long-term accumulation of less weight.
Schulze 2006] Schulze MB, Fung TT, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary Patterns and Changes in Body Weight in Women. 2006 North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASO); DOI: 10.1038/oby.2006.164